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Home Diseases Dentistry Gingivitis


Specialization: Dentistry

What is gingivitis?

Gingivitis is a gum illness caused by bacteria accumulating in the mouth. It provokes infection. Despite the gingivitis being an early and milder pathology, the gums suffer greatly. They become red, swollen and sensitive to any stimulus.

Gingivitis is mostly known as periodontal disease. Bacteria, progressing on the gums and affecting them gradually, cause repeated bleeding from time to time.

Gingivitis types 

Is gingivitis serious? It’s determined based on affected area and pathology manifestations.

  1. Catarrhal – illness affects the definite gum area, provoking itching and redness; some pain may be felt. The simplest and easiest type to cure.
  2. Ulcerative – open ulcers appear on gums; additionally, the illness course is accompanied by a terribly bad breath. Difficult pathology to cure because of possible purulent lesions.
  3. Gingivitis hyperplasia – gum begins growing uncontrollably, overlapping dental crowns; then, regrown areas become keratinized. Hyperplastic gingivitis develops rashly and provokes the gums and cheek tissue fusion.
  4. Atrophic – gums level decreases, and tooth neck is exposed up to roots.

Gingivitis occurrence and development causes 

Bacteria are present in any mouth, but mostly they are harmless. Those species being dangerous for gums form a plaque on teeth – it looks like a sticky membrane. Regular teeth brushing will help getting rid of it – if a person doesn’t do this, the gingivitis spreading risk increases.

Among other things, favorably affecting pathology development are the following:

  • pregnancy or hormonal changes;
  • complete oral hygiene lack;
  • predisposition to similar illnesses on a family line;
  • chewing or smoking tobacco habit.

Certain meds reduce the saliva amount produced, which can provoke gingivitis. In particular:

  • concomitant meds in cancer cure;
  • drugs used in epilepsy;
  • meds prescribed for pressure problems;
  • oral contraceptives.

Gingivitis symptoms 

Mostly, gingivitis is asymptomatic. If it worsens, person feel and discover the following symptoms of gingivitis:

  • intolerably terrible smell from mouth, which can’t be removed;
  • light bleeding from gums, especially after exposure to them – with a brush, etc.;
  • affected gums swelling and redness;
  • excessive susceptibility to cold and hot;
  • ache when chewing.

Diagnosis and treatment of gingivitis

Doctors conduct an initial oral cavity examination for bleeding, redness and swelling, and others. If pathology presence is suspected, the dentist prescribes an X-ray. In more strong cases, a periodontist begins to work with patients.

Why to treat gingivitis? Therapy is mainly aimed at infection eradication and gum restoring. Specialist cleans the teeth, liquidating harmful bacteria, eliminating plaque. Additional gingivitis treat procedures:

  • root polishing and scaling – deep bacteria cleaning and removal from teeth areas under the gums;
  • affected tooth renewal – crown restoration, filling or insertion of prostheses to glassy surfaces being easier to care for.

Further recommendations are regular and thorough oral hygiene. It prevents further gingivitis.