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Home Diseases Neurology Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Specialization: Neurology

Multiple Sclerosis: How to Recognize and Treat the Disease

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune pathology damaging to the nervous system and developing at a young age. Pathology can provoke serious disability. Only timely diagnosis and proper therapy will slow down the disease progression and make it possible to create stable remission.

Multiple sclerosis causes 

It hasn’t yet been studied why the pathology development process starts in organisms. Some researchers talk about specific viral effects, others claim the problem is the hereditary thing. Consider the list of probable multiple sclerosis roots:

  • brain trauma;
  • spinal harmful influence;
  • chronic overwork;
  • constant stresses;
  • hormonal background failure;
  • metabolic disorders, overweight;
  • chronic inflammation, etc.

Types and stages

Sclerosis pathology is divided into groups according to the disease’s nature:

  • relapsing: aggravated in rare cases; during remission, brain activity is fully or partially restored;
  • primary progressive: pathology develops gradually; symptoms progress, the brain doesn’t recover;
  • secondary progressive: rare exacerbations, progressive symptoms;
  • progressive-remitting: at the beginning pathology proceeds in a relapsing form, but then a steady progress is noticeable.

What are symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

Symptoms for multiple sclerosis are as follows.

  1. Visual acuity deterioration, eye turbidity is felt, blind spots appear, etc. As the pathology progresses, strabismus, eyelid drooping, eye movement inconsistency, or double vision occur.
  2. Coordination’s dizziness or lack. People stagger, handwriting becomes worse, objects doubling occurs, hand trembling is felt.
  3. Paresthesias appear – tingling, burning, goosebumps for no reason. Sensitivity may decrease or increase. There’s changes in temperature, both up and down.
  4. Going to the toilet may become more or less frequent, strong and unexpected urges appear. Feeling the bladder hasn’t been completely emptied. In men, potency worsens.
  5. Fine motor skills violations, weakness feeling, muscle cramps, etc.
  6. Emotional, mental disorders – emotional lability, irritability, memory becomes worse, apathy is felt, etc.

Multiple sclerosis foci are very extensive, so signals occur everywhere. Mostly, certain symptoms are noticeable at once, appearing either simultaneously or alternate.

Multiple sclerosis diagnosis and treatment 

Neurologists examine the patient, determining muscle strength, reflexes’ change and sensitivity. Moreover, for confirming the diagnosis, an MRI is prescribed – analysis makes it possible to identify the problem foci. Additionally, physicians may prescribe a lumbar puncture with the material analysis for specific antibody presence.

In multiple sclerosis treatment, it’s needed to act comprehensively. Depending on pathology type and stage, the following is used:

  • corticosteroids, temporarily suppressing the immune system;
  • immunomodulators: for exacerbations preventive therapy;
  • plasmapheresis: for blood plasma purification from antibodies;
  • interferons: for slowing down the destruction.

Symptomatology therapy of multiple sclerosis itself is:

  • antispasmodic drugs;
  • antidepressants;
  • nootropic meds;
  • angioprotectors;
  • painkillers, etc.

If there are no exacerbations, physicians prescribe procedures for improving the nervous system and muscles functions:

  • training of various types;
  • physiotherapy (except for warming up);
  • psychotherapy;
  • massage;
  • treatment in sanatorium-type complexes;
  • vitamins course.