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Atopic dermatitis/eczema

Specialization: Dermatology

Atopic dermatitis/eczema is a state when the skin is inflamed. Mostly, it occurs in children, however, it may also be revealed in older age. The state has chronic nature and exacerbation of its symptomatology. It is not transmitted.

Persons suffering from eczema often have concomitant allergies to certain foods and hay fever.

Causes of dermatitis/eczema

There is no consensus on the roots of dermatitis. Doctors assume this ailment is hereditary, and can progress if someone in patients’ anamnesis has hay fever or allergic reactions. Factors forcing this condition are as follows.

  1. Living in cold regions or areas with high levels of pollution.
  2. Frequent use of overly harsh detergents or soap solutions without gloves.
  3. Wearing certain fabrics, in particular stitching or wool.
  4. Frequent use and incomplete removal of decorative cosmetics from the skin.
  5. Frequent contact with plant pollen or mold.
  6. Frequent inhalation and skin contact with tobacco smoke.
  7. Strong stressful situations.
  8. Exposure to dry air during the cold season.
  9. Frequent long hot showers.
  10. Profuse sweating.
  11. Skin tendency to dryness.
  12. Skin infection.
  13. Active action of certain hormones.
  14. Excessive presence of certain foods in the diet, particularly, eggs, dairy products, soy, nuts, etc.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis

Mostly, the ailment manifests itself at a very early age: areas on arms, legs and scalp are covered with small red scales. In these areas, severe itching is felt, which usually increases at night. Other eczema symptoms:

  • appearance of a rash on the skin having a clear liquid inside;
  • cracks that hurt and bleed;
  • the appearance of skin folds under the eyes and on the palms;
  • darkening around the eyes.

Diagnosis of eczema

Revealing manifestation of dermatitis symptomatology, doctors conduct a general skin examination and clear up from the patient whether any of his/her relatives had this disease.

In addition, usually, the doctor prescribes to the patient a test for the body’s susceptibility to certain allergens. This will help determine whether exposure to an allergen causes the exanthema.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis

It’s incurable, however, there are many remedies aimed at reducing its symptoms.

  1. Steroid ointments.
  2. Antihistamines for relieving itching.
  3. Antibiotics for more severe forms of the disease.
  4. Drugs that activate the immune system: crisaborol, dupilumab, etc.
  5. Injections of bio-preparations, which are also aimed at activating the immune system.
  6. Dressings with certain solutions that have a moisturizing effect.
  7. Special creams.
  8. Light therapy.

For milder ailment forms, next-mentioned is recommended:

  • avoid contact with triggers;
  • maintain a regular diet, carefully monitoring the absence or reduction of certain foods in it;
  • regular skin hydration;
  • compliance with the sleep regimen;
  • avoiding or minimizing stressful situations.