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Home Diseases Neurosurgery Pituitary Adenoma

Pituitary Adenoma

Specialization: Neurosurgery

What is pituitary adenoma?

Hypophysis adenoma is a tumor, in most cases, benignant. Pathology grows slowly and doesn’t demonstrate itself in other organs. However, increasing in size, adenoma puts pressure on nearby parts. Pressured nerves connecting eyeballs to the brain is especially dangerous, and can cause complications.

Tumor also negatively affects healthy pituitary cells, preventing their functioning. As a result, significant changes appear in organisms. Additionally, some adenomas produce dangerous hormones in the bloodstream.

What causes pituitary adenoma?

Exact ground of pituitary tumor formation isn’t determined. Certain cases, along with pathology, show DNA change. As a result, uncontrolled anomalistic behavior of pituitary cells starts. In such a way adenoma is formed. DNA modifications can pass through generations.

Pituitary adenoma symptomatology

Pituitary adenoma manifestations depend on hormones tumor secretes and nearby organs it affects. Large number of hormones provoques occurrence of several defects.

  1. Acromegaly and gigantism for majors and children accordingly. Growth hormone abundance.
  2. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland).
  3. Cushing’s disease: suprarenal glands begin to produce steroid substances.

Among main pituitary adenoma symptoms:

  • headache attacks;
  • visual impairment; sometimes complete vision loss;
  • nausea bouts;
  • causeless vomiting;
  • behavioral reactions changes: aggressive mood, hostile attitude towards others, anxiety and panic attacks;
  • smell change;
  • genitals dysfunction;
  • extreme degree of fatigue in absence of strong load;
  • significant weight loss or sudden increase in weight;
  • unusual sensations in muscles, pain;
  • Menstrual cycle changes.

Hypophysis adenoma diagnosis and treatment

For revealing pituitary adenoma, some laboratory tests are required, in particular, general blood one. It will help determine hormones. In addition, physician may use CT or MRI -shows an increase in the size of the pituitary gland. Occasionally, it may be necessary to carry out concomitant diagnostics, for ex., a vision test if it worsens, and so on.

Hypophysis adenoma treatment is as follows:

  1. Surgical intervention. Doctor touches the pituitary gland with special instruments, very thin and little with a small end camera. They are inserted into the nose. Sometimes use of such a technique is impossible – patients need cranium operation.
  2. Medicines. Neurosurgeons claim that some types of adenomas can be eliminated with the help of drugs – drugs reduce the size of the pathology, eliminating the symptoms.
  3. Radiation therapy. Adenoma can be destroyed by irradiation with huge doses of special reys.

How serious is a pituitary adenoma?

Future prospects for adenoma sufferers depend on formation type. Mostly, after getting rid of malignant tumor parts patients live fully with benign adenomas for a long time.

Sometimes additional cure may be required. Approximately 25% of patients suffering from prolactinoma – the most common type – at some point face the need for additional therapy.