Hodgkin’s lymphoma Nature and Treatment
Hodgkin’s lymphoma belongs to cancerous tumors category. Pathology affects the lymphatic system. With this disease, lymphocytes begin to change uncontrollably, which leads to increase in lymph nodes.
What causes Hodgkin’s lymphoma?
There is no single answer to the question of the cause of the development of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is known that pathology is formed when lymphocytes DNA changes. Cells begin to rapidly divide and don’t die naturally. To restore balance, lymphatic system recruits many other cells. Consequently, they accumulate in lymph nodes, causing severe swelling.
Several risk factors and common lymphoma causes:
- age. Most often, people 20-30 years old and 55+ suffer from Hodgkin’s pathology;
- presence a person with lymphoma among close relatives;
- genetic predisposition – presence of DNA mutations at genome level;
- men suffer from disease twice as often;
- if person has previously had Epstein-Barr infection, in particular, mononucleosis caused by third-party viruses;
- people diagnosed with HIV.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma symptoms
Symptoms vary depending on lymphoma stages.
- Initial stage. Non-lymphoid cells in part of organ are affected.
- II stage. Cells that already have cancerous nature spread to nearby lymph nodes.
- III stage. Affected cells affect diaphragm, staying from it on both sides. Additionally, at this stage, spleen is under negative influence.
- IV stage. Lymphoma is already spreading its cells in several organs of non-lymphoid group. Most of lymph nodes are affected.
Person who notices following symptoms should immediately consult a doctor.
- Enlarged to touch lymph nodes, even without pain. It is worth checking armpits and groin.
- Fever without cold symptoms.
- Person constantly feels tired and is in depressed mind state.
- Violent perspiration at night.
- Sudden weight loss.
- Feeling of intense itching all over the body.
- After drinking alcoholic beverages, there are painful sensations in lymph nodes.
If any of above is repeated consistently, it needs attention.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnosis and treatment
For pathology diagnostic instrumental and laboratory techniques are used together in medicine. In particular:
- general blood test;
- blood sampling for biochemical analysis;
- lymph node biopsy – doctor takes small tissue piece for histological tests;
- Ultrasound, endoscopy and CT;
- in some cases, immunophenotyping of affected lymphocytes is required.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment is possible with the help of following medical techniques.
- Radiotherapy. Doctor locally affects the affected area with gamma rays.
- Chemotherapy. Special drugs that suppress the increase in cancer cells size.
Percentage of survival after the pathology cure
Highest percentage of survival is observed in children and adolescents – about 95-96%. For older people, the figure is slightly reduced – 90%. Survival rate for lymph node cancer is quite high.